Articles by

Carolyn Gramling

The dinosaur-killing asteroid impact radically altered Earth’s tropical forests

The day before a giant asteroid hit Earth 66 million years ago, a very different kind of...

An ancient shark’s weird fins helped it glide like a manta ray

Thirty million years before manta rays began gracefully gliding through ocean waters, a shark with fantastically elongated...

This soft robot withstands crushing pressures at the ocean’s greatest depths

Inspired by a strange fish that can withstand the punishing pressures of the deepest reaches of the...

Predatory octopuses were drilling into clamshells at least 75 million years ago

Tiny holes in three fossil clams reveal that by 75 million years ago, ancient octopuses were deviously...

A magnetic field reversal 42,000 years ago may have contributed to mass extinctions

A flip-flop of Earth’s magnetic poles between 42,000 and 41,000 years ago briefly but dramatically shrank the...

Fossil mimics may be more common in ancient rocks than actual fossils

When it comes to finding fossils of very ancient microbial life — whether on Earth or on...

How much will Africa capitalize on cheap renewable energy as its power grid grows?

Africa’s electricity capacity is expected to double by 2030 — and with the rapidly dropping cost...

2020 and 2016 tie for the hottest years on record

2020 is in a “dead heat” with 2016 for the hottest year on record, scientists with NASA...