Next, they proved that the bots could swim. In test tubes containing urea, the microbots reached speeds of up to 4 micrometers per second—“one or two body lengths per second,” says Sánchez. (Humans also swim around one body-length per second.)
Then it was time to show that the bots could also kill. But the team agonized over how to prove that they could actually treat an animal’s infection better than by just using passive drops of antibiotics. “That took some time,” de la Fuente says.
In the end, they devised a setup to test two important criteria: that antimicrobial micro or nanobots can treat infected mice and that their active motion
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